Week 6 Quarter 1 October 5 – 9, 2020

TeacherMelissa Forney
Subject AreaELA/Reading
Grade Level8
Week #6
Unit of Instructioncomprehending nonfiction details, writing introduction, middle, and conclusion, choosing key details from a nonfiction text and a fiction text
Standard(s) Taught

LAFS.8.RL.1.1: Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

LAFS.8.RL.1.2: Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters,
setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.

LAFS.8.RL.1.3: Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

LAFS.8.RL.2.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of
specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

LAFS.8.RL.2.5: Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.

LAFS.8.RI.1.1: Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

LAFS.8.RI.1.2: Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas;
provide an objective summary of the text.

LAFS.8.RI.1.3: Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).

LAFS.8.RI.2.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the
impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
LAFS.8.RI.2.5: Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept. 

LAFS.8.RI.2.6: Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

Learning Targets and Learning Criteria

My students will read aloud the essays they wrote last week. This counts as a quiz grade. As I told you, I am looking for an introduction, a detailed middle, and a conclusion.

My students will watch a short video on taking care of a horse. They will take notes to use on their nonfiction essay.

My students will read four nonfiction texts, discuss important details, and take a quiz on each passage. 

My students will read the 64 ways and words to use for citing evidence in nonfiction.

Accomodations:

ESE – Special Considerations based on IEP
504– Special Considerations based on Accommodation Plan
ESOL – Appropriate printed material, pre-teaching activities, various instructional approaches, student engagement and thinking activities, differentiation, check for content comprehension, resources for assistance, reinforce study skills, linguistic modifications, specific vocabulary, alternative assessment.

 

Classroom Activities

Monday – Read and Review 64 citing words for citing sources in essays. Read The Tell-Tale Heart independently.

Tuesday – Quiz on Tell-Tale Heart. Discuss author’s purpose, point of view, setting, time frame, and key details that make the story work.

Wednesday – Ready independently 45 minutes on your chapter book. In the afternoon we will read two nonfiction texts on taking care of horses.

Thursday – We will read two more nonfiction texts on taking care of horses. We will take quizzes on comprehension for each text.

Friday – We will review the new things we have learned this week and finish others. We will play Kahoot.

https://my.hrw.com/content/hmof/language_arts/hmhcollections/fl/gr8/ese_9780544088290_/index.html

Assignments Due

Cleaning A Horse’s Stall
by Melissa Forney ©2015
Nothing is quite as beautiful and awe-inspiring as a horse. No wonder millions of kids long to own one of their own. Learning to ride, enjoying long trail rides, and forming a loving friendship with a horse can be a dream come true. However, owning a horse is a lot of work, especially making sure your horse’s stall is healthy and clean. Taking care of a horse involves hours and hours of care each week.
Your horse will need a clean, dry, safe place to live. This usually means an individual stall in a barn. In her article, “Mucking 101,” horse owner Jeanne M. Rudmann explains that the floor of the stall needs a padded mat to keep your horse from getting bruises. You’ll also need to put down a thick layer of wood shavings or straw. This layer piles up to make a thick, comfortable sleeping spot for your horse. Wood shavings and straw also absorb huge amounts of urine. Twice each day you’ll need to muck out your horse’s stall. Begin by using a pitchfork to pick up the horse manure piles and put them in a bucket. Next, find the damp urine spots, scoop them up with a flat shovel, and add the dirty bedding to your muck bucket. Cover any open spots on the floor with fresh straw or wood shavings to keep your horse clean and happy.
One important detail of mucking a horse’s stall is to take care of his water bucket to remove dust, wood shavings, and algae. Don’t just rinse it. It may look clean, but slimy stuff may have started to grow along the sides. Take the water bucket outside, and give it a good scrub with a brush before filling it again with clean, fresh water. Your horse will love you for this. Horses require a lot of water each day to keep from getting dehydrated.
Before you’re finished mucking the stall, check the stall for anything that could spook or hurt your horse: loose nails, insects, wrappers, etc. If you’re going to pen your horse in a stall, he is dependent on you for a safe environment.

What’s on the Menu?
by Melissa Forney ©2015

In order for your horse to stay happy and healthy, you’ll need to provide good nutrition for him.
Horses need 1-2% of their body weight in roughage every day, so if your horse weighs 800 pounds, he would need between 8 and 16 pounds of hay each day. When you buy the hay, make sure it is dry and very high quality. Carefully measure the amount of hay to feed your horse. Don’t just look at a pile of hay and estimate. Bring a measured amount of hay into your horse’s freshly cleaned stall, and fork the hay into a crib or hay holder. Check with your vet to find out how much grain your horse will need each day. Twice each day, measure carefully, then scoop the grain into the grain holder in your horse’s stall. If your horse isn’t allowed grain, he’ll need much more hay in order to satisfy his hunger.
Your horse will also enjoy special snacks and treats such as carrots, celery, snow peas, apples, strawberries, raisins, grapes, and other fruits. Make sure to cut these treats into small pieces to keep your horse from choking on a whole apple or long piece of carrot. Inspect the fruit or vegetables first to make sure they are not moldy or starting to spoil. Horses love sweets! It’s okay to feed your horse one or two sugar cubes, caramels, peppermints, or chocolates each day.

Bathing Your Horse
by Melissa Forney ©2015

Like everyone else, horses get dirty and need baths. The bad news is you have to bathe her! The good news is you don’t have to do it too often. Here are some tips to serve as a checklist and reminder for you as you bathe your horse.
First of all, use a brush to groom your horse all over from head to toe to remove excess dirt, dust, and loose hair. Pick out any stones or mud in your horse’s hooves. Coat each hoof with Vaseline or another product designed to keep hooves waterproof. Speak to your horse in a loving, encouraging voice. Bath time can be a great time for bonding between a horse and her horse lover.
Start the bath by wetting your horse’s feet and legs, one at a time. Use a large sponge to apply horse shampoo and rub it in. Most horses love this. Rinse each section before you move on to another section, leaving the head and tail for last. The tail is no problem. Insert your horse’s tail into a bucket of soapy shampoo water and swirl it gently with your hands. A lot of dirt collects here, so spend some time getting to the tip of the tail. You can wash your horse up to her ears with a gentle hose trickle and a sponge, but some horses are sensitive about water getting on their faces, so be careful. Wring out a cloth that has been dipped in water only, and clean your horse’s face, ears, and nostrils with a tender touch.
One of the most important steps in bathing your horse is making sure they’re rinsed properly. Rinse over and over until you’re sure all of the shampoo has been eliminated. Use a horse scraper and soft towels to dry the rest of her body, tail, and legs. Before putting her back in her stall make sure she’s completely dry. The first thing horses like to do after their baths is to roll on the ground. You don’t want to start all over again!

Protecting Your Horse from Flies, Mosquitoes, and Ticks
by Melissa Forney ©2015

When you’re responsible for a horse, you have to think of the weirdest things at times, like bugs and insects and manure. Most horses spend a lot of time out in pastures, rolling on the ground, playing with other horses, racing, and munching grass. With manure in the open pasture, flies show up almost immediately, and they are also attracted to horse sweat, eyes, ears, and nostrils. Swarms of flies buzzing around his face can be very irritating and distressing for a horse. Clouds of mosquitoes can get into a horse’s eyes and drive him half crazy.
A horse doesn’t have hands, so he uses his tail to swish away insects. That helps the rear portion of his body, but it doesn’t do much for the front. You should know when your horse needs a fly mask, a lightweight cloth mask that closes with Velcro. A fly mask has lots of tiny eyeholes, so the horse can still see well, but the holes are small enough that flies, gnats, and mosquitoes can’t get in.
Use a shovel and wheelbarrow to remove piles of manure from the pasture. This keeps horses from standing in manure that has mixed with dirt or mud. It also helps keep away the swarms of flies. A happy horse has a clean pasture.
Every two to three days, you should check your horse’s body carefully for ticks, insect bites, or sores. Pull off ticks. These little “monsters” feed off your horse’s blood and cause sores and infections. Besides, a horse can’t speak to you in words and tell you what “bugs” them. The extra work you put in to keep your horse insect free is one of the best ways to show your horse love. When you ride your horse, or even just scratch her neck or offer her an apple, you’ll feel a sense of pride that you have personally created a safe place for your horse to live, graze, and ride.

 

 

 

Additional Resources
  1. according to _________.
  2. according to the author
  3. admits
  4. advocates the view
  5. affirms
  6. agrees
  7. alleges
  8. argues
  9. asserts
  10. believes
  11. cautions
  12. charges
  13. claims
  14. comments
  15. compares
  16. concludes
  17. confides
  18. confirms
  19. counsels
  20. declares
  21. demands
  22. denies
  23. emphasizes
  24. establishes
  25. estimates
  26. explains
  27. expresses
  28. feels
  29. holds the position
  30. identifies
  31. illustrates
  32. implies
  33. indicates
  34. insists
  35. instructs
  36. maintains
  37. mentions
  38. notes
  39. observes
  40. pleads
  41. points out
  42. presents the argument
  43. professes
  44. proposes
  45. proves
  46. questions
  47. recommends
  48. rejects
  49. relates
  50. remarks
  51. reminds us
  52. repeats
  53. reports
  54. reveals
  55. says
  56. states
  57. stresses
  58. suggests
  59. testifies
  60. things
  61. urges
  62. wants us to know
  63. warns us

1. according to the author – Use when citing from an author.
I wanted to visit Puerto Rico in the summer, but according to Juana Rios, “Be sure to visit Puerto Rico
in the spring.”

According to Juana Rios, it’s best to visit Puerto Rico in the springtime.

2. according to _______________ – Use when citing from an expert.
My dad planted tomato plants, and according to HGTV, “Tomatos grow quite well in South Carolina.”

According to HGTV, tomatoes grow well in South Carolina, and my dad planted some for us this year.

3. admits – Use when the expert has been questioned.
When asked about her experience in Panama, Caroline Ezra admits, “The whole experience was magical.”

Caroline Ezra admits her experience in Panama was simply magical.

4. advocates the view – Use when an expert recommends something.
Most schools want to keep a rigid schedule, but Melissa Forney advocates the view, “Children should have some free time to use their imaginations, to play, and to explore.”

Melissa Forney advocates that children should have time to use their imaginations, play, and explore even
though most schools want to keep a rigid schedule.

5. affirms – Use when an expert agrees with someone or something.
The author affirms, “I agree with Coach Simon that sports are a wonderful way for kids to get exercise.”

The author affirms that sports are a wonderful way for kids to get exercise.

6. agrees – Use when an expert agrees with someone or something.
Our principal agrees, “I’m going to schedule more time for P. E. because I believe that it’s good for students.”
Our principal agrees that we need more time on the schedule for P. E. because it’s good for us.

7. alleges – Use when an expert states something that he believes to be true.
My mother alleges, “If you’re nice to others, they’ll be nice to you.”

My mother alleges that other people will be nice to you if you’re nice to them.

8. argues – Use when an expert has an opposing or different view.
Most parents think kids should go to bed early, but my Dad argues, “Every child is different. Some kids
don’t need to go to bed early.”

When other parents think kids should go to be early, my Dad argues, “No way.” He thinks some kids don’t need to go to bed early.

9. asserts – Use when an expert makes a statement.
My teacher, Miss Phillips, asserts, “I want my students to know that reading is one of the most important skills we learn all year.”

Miss Phillips, my teacher, asserts that she wants her students to know that reading is incredibly
important, one of the most important skills we learn all year.

10. believes – Use when an expert states something he believes in.
Monty Roberts, The Horse Whisperer, believes, “Horses use a special language. Humans can learn this horse language and use it to communicate with horses.”

Monty Roberts, sometimes called the Horse Whisperer, believes horses use a special language and humans can learn this language and use it to talk with horses.

11. cautions – Use when an expert warns us.
Delmar Whitehorse cautions, “Never go out into the woods by yourself. Make sure you have someone with you and take plenty of water.”

When we go out into the woods, Delmar Whitehorse cautions us to always have someone with us and to take lots of water.

12. charges – Use when an expert asks us to do something.
The Golden Rule charges, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.”

The Golden Rule charges we should treat others like we want to be treated.

13. claims – Use when an expert states something to be true.
The alligator expert who took us out on the lake claims, “There are about 150,000 alligators here in Lake Jessup.”

When we went out on Lake Jessup with an alligator expert, he claimed there’s somewhere around 150,000
alligators in that lake.

14. comments – Use when an expert gives his opinion.
The makeup artist Janna Ripley comments, “Using less blush on your cheeks looks better than too much.”

Janna Ripley, a makeup artist, commented that she thinks it’s best not to use too much blush on
your cheeks.

15. compares – Use when an expert compares two things or two or more ideas.
The author compares, “When you own your own horse, it’s like a full-time hobby.”

The author compares owning your own horse to a full-time hobby.

16. concludes – Use for a last quote from an author or expert.
Della Sharps, veterinarian at Stelthorn Zoo, concludes, “The reason most zoo accidents happen is when some of our guests break the rules. These animals are wild. Never forget that.”

The veterinarian at Stelthorn Zoo, Della Sharps, concludes that if some guest didn’t break the rules, most zoo accidents wouldn’t happen. These animals are wild, and we must remember that.

17. confides – Use when an expert or author shares confidential information.
The author confides, “I was shy as a kid, too, and could hardly speak to a girl.”

The author confides that he could hardly speak to a girl when he was a kid because he was shy.

18. confirms – Use when an expert agrees with something previously stated or another expert.
In the second article, Dr. Granger confirms Dr. Salk’s findings. “If we are not watchful, polio could once again become a threat.”

Dr. Granger warns that polio could once again become a threat if we are not watchful, which confirms Dr. Salk’s findings.

19. counsels – Use when an expert gives advice.
In his article on dental care, Dr. Lee Edgars counsels, “Eating an apple every day does wonders for your teeth.”

In his article on dental care, Dr. Lee Edgars counsels us to eat an apple every day because it’s good for your teeth.

20. declares – Use to quote an expert.
The weather report from Channel 7 declares, “We’re under a tornado watch until 3:00 pm.”

Channel 7’s weather report declares we are under a tornado watch until 3:00 pm.

21. demands – Use to show the expert was forceful in his beliefs.
The author demands, “Don’t get a dog if you’re not willing to treat it with love and kindness.”

The author demands for us to either treat our pet dogs with love and kindness or don’t get one.

22. denies – Use when an expert wants us to know that a previous claim is not true.
The author denies the claim that he never served in the military. “I served two tours in Iraq and
one in Afghanistan.”

The author served two tours in Iraq and one in Afghanistan. He denies any claims that he never
served in the military.

23. emphasizes – Use when an expert wants to really make a point.
The second author emphasizes, “Make sure your eggs and butter are at room temperature.”

The second author emphasizes to make sure the eggs and butter you use are at room temperature.

24. establishes – Use to quote an expert.
The author establishes, “Parkour is not for everyone. You must be in the best physical shape.”

The author establishes that you must be in the best physical shape to participate in Parkour.

25. estimates – Use when an expert is giving an educated guess.
In the third article, the author estimates, “At least 75% of adults will be overweight by 50.”

The author of the third article estimates that by the age of 50, at least 75% of adults will be overweight.

26. explains – Use when an expert gives expository information.
Model Angela Townsend explains, “Modeling pays a lot, but it’s a very demanding job.”

Model Angela Townsend explains that modeling is a very demanding job, but it pays well.

27. expresses – Use when an expert is giving his opinion or feelings.
Omar Trujillo expresses, “Working with butterflies may seem strange to some, but for me it’s a life’s calling.”

Omar Trujillo expresses that working with butterflies is a life’s calling even if some people think it’s weird.

28. feels – Use when an expert shares his feelings.
The author feels, “When you’re deaf, it’s nice when hearing people include you in the conversation. We have thoughts and opinions just like everyone else.”

The author feels that it’s good for hearing people to include deaf people in their conversations
because being deaf doesn’t mean you don’t have thoughts, feelings, and opinions.

29. states – Use to quote an expert.
When she was questioned by the police, the suspect’s wife stated, “He was never violent before.”

When the police questioned her, the suspect’s wife stated she had never seen her husband use
violence before.

30. holds the position – Use when an expert is on one side of a debate.
Jackson Torres, world-famous makeup artist, holds the position, “The creepy makeup is what a horror movie needs to be successful with the audience.”

Jackson Torres holds the position that a horror movie audience wants to see really creepy makeup. He should know because he’s a world-famous makeup artist.

31. identifies – Use when an expert points out a specific example.
The author identifies with the poor. “I know what it’s like to go to bed hungry.”

The author identifies with those who are poor and have gone to bed hungry.

32. illustrates – Use when an expert tells a story to make a point.
Debbie Johnson illustrates how important it is to stay off your phone when you drive. “Two years ago I answered a text while I was driving. When I looked up, it was too late. I smashed into the car in front of me. The driver was killed, and I lost my leg.”

Debbie Johnson illustrates that is important to stay off your phone when you drive. She answered a text while driving two years ago and had a car wreck. The other driver was killed and Debbie lost her leg.

33. implies – Use when an expert suggests something but might not state it outright.
The baker at Dunkin’ Donuts implies, “One look at me and my size will tell you what I do
for a living.”

The baker at Dunkin’ Donuts implies that he is overweight because he eats some of the goodies
he makes every day.

34. indicates – Use to quote an expert.
The author’s research indicates, “The AIDS problem in Africa has not been solved. A high percentage of men, women, and children still have AIDS and need our help.”

The author’s research indicates that many African men, women, and children still have AIDS and need our help.

35. insists – Use when an expert really wants to make a point.
Dominique Gentry, the author of the second article, insists, “Pit bulls are not violent by nature. They are loving, gentle dogs. Dog fighters abuse them, starve them, and turn them into killers.”

The author of the second article, Dominique Gentry, insists that pit bulls are loving, gentle dogs. It is only when dog fighters beat and starve them that they turn into killers.

36. instructs – Use when an expert teaches us or gives directions.
Our baking teacher instructs, “Too much beating toughens muffins. Lightly stir your dough.”

Our baking teacher instructs us to lightly stir our muffin dough, so it won’t get tough.

37. maintains – Use when an expert tells his side of the story.
The first author disagrees, but the author of the second article maintains, “We need some sun every single day. We get Vitamin D through exposure to the sun.”

The second author maintains that we need sun every day because that’s one way we get    Vitamin D.

38. mentions – Use when an expert is casual in his opinion.
The author mentions, “I would secretly love to be chosen for the space program.”

The author mentioned that she would be thrilled to be chosen for the space program.

39. notes – Use when an expert makes an observation.
The author notes, “Pumpkin pie and sweet potato pie are not the same thing.”

The author notes that sweet potato pie is different than pumpkin pie.

40. observes – Use when an expert makes an observation.
The author observes, “The black keys on a piano are made from ebony wood. Ebony wood is the
hardest of all woods.”

The author observes that the hardest of all woods, ebony wood, is used to make the black keys on a piano.

41. pleads – Use when an expert urgently wants to make a point.
The author pleads, “If you don’t start smoking cigarettes you’ll never get addicted.”

The author pleads for us not to start smoking, so we won’t ever get addicted.

42. points out – Use when an expert makes an observation.
Soo Kim, the author of the fourth article, points out, “Korean food is healthy and delicious.”

Soo Kim points out that Korean food is not only delicious but good for you, too.

43. professes – Use when an expert wants to make his personal viewpoint or feelings known.
The author professes, “We don’t have to agree with people in order to be nice to them.”

The author professes that we should be nice to people even if they don’t agree with us.

44. presents the argument – Use when an expert wants to persuade us.
Stella Mason presents the argument, “Eating three servings of vegetables and four servings of
fruit each day is one of the healthiest ways to fuel our bodies.”

Stella Mason presents the argument that we should all eat three servings of vegetables and four
servings of fruit each day to keep our bodies healthy.

45. proposes – Use when an expert wants to make a suggestion.
The author proposes, “Students should go on more field trips. There is nothing better than seeing
something in person and getting hands-on experience.”

The author thinks that it is good for kids to see something in person, touch and experience it themselves, so she proposes more field trips.

46. proves – Use when an expert has given proof.
The author proves, “Recent photos have shown for sure that Mars has flowing water.”

The author proves that the planet Mars has flowing water by showing recent photos.

47. questions – Use when an expert raises a question.
Bear Grylls questions, “Who would not want to know basic survival skills? Knowing where to find water, food, and how to make shelter could save your life.”

Bear Grylls questions why anyone wouldn’t want to learn basic survival skills. If we know where to find water, food, and how to make shelter it could save our lives one day.

48. recommends – Use when an expert gives advice.
Dr. Oz recommends, “We need at least 8 glasses of water every day.”

Dr. Oz recommends for us to drink at least 8 glasses of water every day.

49. rejects – Use when an expert rejects an idea.
The author rejects the idea that wild animals are better off in a zoo. “No one can convince me that animals thrive in a zoo environment. They are meant to be in the wild, and that’s where they are  happiest.”

The author rejects the idea that wild animals should be in a zoo. She thinks they are better off in the wild where they can be happy.

50. relates – Use when an expert tells us something.
Jon Surmayo relates, “When I was a boy, I played outdoors every single day. I climbed trees, built forts, and swam in the creek with my friends.”

Jon Surmayo relates that when he was a kid, he climbed trees, built forts, and swam in the creek
with his friends. He played outdoors every day.

51. remarks – Use when an expert tells us something.
The author, Jean-Pierre Conte, remarks, “Come visit the island of Haiti, and you’ll fall in love with the people. They are warm and loving.”

Jean-Pierre Conte remarks how great it would be for tourists to come visit Haiti because the people are warm and loving.

52. reminds us – Use when an expert wants us to remember something.
André Rieu, the famous orchestra leader, reminds us, “Music is the international language.”

The orchestra leader André Rieu reminds us that music is the international language.

53. repeats – Use when an expert repeats or restates an important idea.
The jungle expert Sara Gilson repeats, “I can’t say it enough: if you are bitten by a snake, seek
medical attention right away.”

Jungle expert Sara Gilson repeats her advice that we should seek immediate medical attention if
we are bitten by a snake.

54. reports – Use when an expert shares firsthand information.
The Weather Channel reports, “There is a category three hurricane headed for New Orleans.”

The Weather Channel reports a category three hurricane is headed for New Orleans.

55. reveals – Use when an expert shares information for the first time.
Stacy Doria, our drama teacher, reveals, “Our next show will be West Side Story.”

Our drama teacher revealed West Side Story will be our next show.

56. says – Use to quote an expert.
Mickey Mouse says, “Meeska, Mooshka, Mickey Mouse!” to open Mickey’s Clubhouse.

To open Mickey’s Clubhouse, Mickey Mouse says special magic words.

57. states – Use to quote an expert.                                                                                                    Melissa Forney states, “The three most important things to remember in writing are content,
creativity, and conventions.”

Melissa Forney states that content, creativity, and conventions are the three most important things to remember in writing.

58. stresses – Use when an expert thinks something is important.
Maya Angelou stresses, “If you don’t like something, change it. If you can’t change it, change your attitude. Don’t complain.”

Maya Angelou stresses that we should not complain. If we don’t like something, we should change it. If we can’t change it, then we have to change our attitude.

59. suggests – Use to quote an expert.
Alma Runningbear suggests, “If you’re going to make your own pemmican, use sweet, fresh berries that have been dried for a week. Chokeberries are a good choice.”

Alma Runningbear suggests to use sweet, fresh chokeberries that have been dried for a week if you’re going to make your own pemmican.

60. testifies – Use when an expert shares from firsthand experience.
The author testifies, “I have seen the Statue of Liberty up close, and she is one gorgeous beauty.”

The author testifies that he has seen the Statue of Liberty in person, and he thinks it’s beautiful.

61. thinks – Use to quote an expert’s personal opinion.
Fen Chen, the author, thinks, “Chinese food in America is very different from Chinese food
in Taiwan.”

The author, Fen Chen, thinks the Chinese food here in America is very different from the Chinese food in Taiwan.

62. urges – Use when an expert wants to emphasize something or move us to action.
Our coach urges, “Stay active every day. Exercise is great for the body.”

Coach urges us to exercise every day because it is excellent for your body.

63. wants us to know – Use when an expert has given advice.
Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson wants us to know, “One of the most important things you can accomplish is just being yourself.”

Dwayne Johnson, also known as “The Rock,” wants us to know that it is important to just be yourself.

64. warns us – Use when an expert wants to caution us.
The author of Getting Your Driver’s License warns us, “Don’t wait until the last minute to study for the written test. That test is as important as the driving test.”

The author of Getting Your Driver’s License warns us to study for the written test and not put it
off till the last minute. You can’t take your driving test if you don’t pass the written test.