DECEMBER 12TH-JANUARY 6TH
• investigate and describe some basic forms of energy, including light, heat (thermal), sound, electrical, chemical, and mechanical (energy of motion).
o review how light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object (opaque, translucent, transparent) and then is reflected/bounced, bent, or absorbed.
o review that things that give off light often also give off heat.
o review that heat is produced when one object rubs against another (friction).
o review that sound is produced by vibrations and that pitch depends on how fast or slow an object vibrates.
o review that heat flows from a hot object to a cold object.
o review common materials that conduct heat well or poorly.
o review that mechanical energy is stored at a position or released in motion.
o explain that electrical energy is the flow of a charge/current through a material.
o explain that chemical energy is stored or released in a chemical reaction (e.g., a source is from the foods animals eat).
• identify and describe examples where energy has caused motion and/or created change (e.g., twirling pinwheel, boiling water, cooking food, turning on a lamp, freezing water, melting chocolate, plant/animal decay, vibration of a radio speaker).
• explain the relationship between energy, motion, and change.
JANUARY 9-JANUARY 31st
• investigate and explain that electrical energy can be transformed into heat, light, sound, and mechanical energy (e.g., lamp, heater, generator, motor, stove, mobile device).
• investigate static electricity (a buildup of electrical charges on an object).
• explain that opposite electrical charges attract (pull towards each other) and like electrical charges repel (push apart) without any contact needed between the objects.
• explain that an electrically-charged object, whether positively or negatively charged, will attract an uncharged (neutral) object.
• determine the source of energy for a circuit.
• investigate and illustrate the fact that the flow of electricity requires a closed circuit (a complete loop) when constructing a simple circuit.
• distinguish between open and closed circuits.
• determine which circuit from a visual representation can carry electricity to power an object and which circuit cannot.
• identify and classify materials that are good conductors (e.g., copper, water, aluminum foil) and insulators/poor conductors (e.g., plastic, rubber, glass, wood) of electricity.
FORCE AND MOTION
FEBRUARY 1st- February 17th
• review that gravity is a force that can be overcome.
• review examples of magnetic attraction and repulsion.
• identify familiar forces (pushes, pulls, friction, gravity, magnetism) that cause or hinder movement of objects.
• identify two or more forces acting upon an object in a scenario.
• interpret the effect of two or more forces acting upon an object.
• recognize that friction is a force that resists movement.
• measure force in Newtons (N) using a spring scale.
• demonstrate that a force may change an object’s original position.
• investigate that the greater the force applied to an object, the greater the change in motion of a given object.
o the amount of force applied to an object affects the speed and/or distance at which it moves
o force affects the direction an object moves
• investigate and explain the effect balanced and unbalanced forces have on motion.
o balanced forces are present when an object does not move because opposing forces are holding the object in place (e.g., a book laying on a table is being acted upon by the table pushing up on the book from below and gravity pushing down from above).
o unbalanced forces are present when an object does move because one of the opposing forces moves the object from its original position.
• investigate and describe the relationship among mass, force, and motion.
o objects with greater mass require more force to move compared with objects of less mass (and the reverse).
o more force is required to slow down an object in motion with greater mass compared to an object with less mass (and the reverse).