Distinguish between an experiment (which must involve the identification and control of variables) and other forms of scientific investigation and explain that not all scientific knowledge is derived from experimentation.
Describe the methods used in the pursuit of a scientific explanation as seen in different fields of science such as biology, geology, and physics
Define a problem from the seventh grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.
Differentiate replication (by others) from repetition (multiple trials).
Identify test variables (independent variables) and outcome variables (dependent variables) in an experiment.
Explain that scientific knowledge is the result of a great deal of debate and confirmation within the science community.
Investigate and describe the transformation of energy from one form to another.
Cite evidence to explain that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only changed from one form to another.
Recognize and explain that a scientific law is a description of a specific relationship under given conditions in the natural world. Thus, scientific laws are different from societal laws.
Differentiate among the various forms of energy and recognize that they can be transformed from one form to others.