LAFS.6.RI.1.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Level 2
LAFS.6.RI.1.2 Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. Level 2
LAFS.6.RI.1.3 Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes). Level 2
LAFS.6.RI.2.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings. Level 3
2LAFS.6.RI.2.5 Analyze in detail how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas. Level 3
LAFS.6.RI.2.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.
Cleaning A Horse’s Stall
by Carmella Highson
Nothing is quite as beautiful and awe-inspiring as a horse. No wonder millions of kids long to own one of their own. Learning to ride, enjoying long trail rides, and forming a loving friendship with a horse can be a dream come true. However, owning a horse is a lot of work, especially making sure your horse’s stall is healthy and clean. Taking care of a horse involves hours and hours of care each week.
Your horse will need a clean, dry, safe place to live. This usually means an individual stall in a barn. In her article, “Mucking 101,” horse owner Jeanne M. Rudmann explains that the floor of the stall needs a padded mat to keep your horse from getting bruises. You’ll also need to put down a thick layer of wood shavings or straw. This layer piles up to make a thick, comfortable sleeping spot for your horse. Wood shavings and straw also absorb huge amounts of urine. Twice each day you’ll need to muck out your horse’s stall. Begin by using a pitchfork to pick up the horse manure piles and put them in a bucket. Next, find the damp urine spots, scoop them up with a flat shovel, and add the dirty bedding to your muck bucket. Cover any open spots on the floor with fresh straw or wood shavings to keep your horse clean and happy.
One important detail of mucking a horse’s stall is to take care of his water bucket to remove dust, wood shavings, and algae. Don’t just rinse it. It may look clean, but slimy stuff may have started to grow along the sides. Take the water bucket outside, and give it a good scrub with a brush before filling it again with clean, fresh water. Your horse will love you for this. Horses require a lot of water each day to keep from getting dehydrated.
Before you’re finished mucking the stall, check the stall for anything that could spook or hurt your horse: loose nails, insects, wrappers, etc. If you’re going to pen your horse in a stall, he is dependent on you for a safe environment.
What’s on the Menu?
by Chad Rassi
In order for your horse to stay happy and healthy, you’ll need to provide good nutrition for him.
Horses need 1-2% of their body weight in roughage every day, so if your horse weighs 800 pounds, he would need between 8 and 16 pounds of hay each day. When you buy the hay, make sure it is dry and very high quality. Carefully measure the amount of hay to feed your horse. Don’t just look at a pile of hay and estimate. Bring a measured amount of hay into your horse’s freshly cleaned stall, and fork the hay into a crib or hay holder. Check with your vet to find out how much grain your horse will need each day. Twice each day, measure carefully, then scoop the grain into the grain holder in your horse’s stall. If your horse isn’t allowed grain, he’ll need much more hay in order to satisfy his hunger.
Your horse will also enjoy special snacks and treats such as carrots, celery, snow peas, apples, strawberries, raisins, grapes, and other fruits. Make sure to cut these treats into small pieces to keep your horse from choking on a whole apple or long piece of carrot. Inspect the fruit or vegetables first to make sure they are not moldy or starting to spoil. Horses love sweets! It’s okay to feed your horse one or two sugar cubes, caramels, peppermints, or chocolates each day. If you feed him correctly, your horse will thank you for a lifetime.
Bathing Your Horse
by Missy Phelps
Like everyone else, horses get dirty and need baths. The bad news is you have to bathe her! The good news is you don’t have to do it too often. Here are some tips to serve as a checklist and reminder for you as you bathe your horse.
First of all, use a brush to groom your horse all over from head to toe to remove excess dirt, dust, and loose hair. Pick out any stones or mud in your horse’s hooves. Coat each hoof with Vaseline or another product designed to keep hooves waterproof. Speak to your horse in a loving, encouraging voice. Bath time can be a great time for bonding between a horse and her horse lover.
Start the bath by wetting your horse’s feet and legs, one at a time. Use a large sponge to apply horse shampoo and rub it in. Most horses love this. Rinse each section before you move on to another section, leaving the head and tail for last. The tail is no problem. Insert your horse’s tail into a bucket of soapy shampoo water and swirl it gently with your hands. A lot of dirt collects here, so spend some time getting to the tip of the tail. You can wash your horse up to her ears with a gentle hose trickle and a sponge, but some horses are sensitive about water getting on their faces, so be careful. Wring out a cloth that has been dipped in water only, and clean your horse’s face, ears, and nostrils with a tender touch.
One of the most important steps in bathing your horse is making sure they’re rinsed properly. Rinse over and over until you’re sure all of the shampoo has been eliminated. Use a horse scraper and soft towels to dry the rest of her body, tail, and legs. Before putting her back in her stall make sure she’s completely dry. The first thing horses like to do after their baths is to roll on the ground. You don’t want to start all over again!
Protecting Your Horse from Flies, Mosquitoes, and Ticks
by Donna Laidig
When you’re responsible for a horse, you have to think of the weirdest things at times, like bugs and insects and manure. Most horses spend a lot of time out in pastures, rolling on the ground, playing with other horses, racing, and munching grass. With manure in the open pasture, flies show up almost immediately, and they are also attracted to horse sweat, eyes, ears, and nostrils. Swarms of flies buzzing around his face can be very irritating and distressing for a horse. Clouds of mosquitoes can get into a horse’s eyes and drive him half crazy.
A horse doesn’t have hands, so he uses his tail to swish away insects. That helps the rear portion of his body, but it doesn’t do much for the front. You should know when your horse needs a fly mask, a lightweight cloth mask that closes with Velcro. A fly mask has lots of tiny eyeholes, so the horse can still see well, but the holes are small enough that flies, gnats, and mosquitoes can’t get in.
Use a shovel and wheelbarrow to remove piles of manure from the pasture. This keeps horses from standing in manure that has mixed with dirt or mud. It also helps keep away the swarms of flies. A happy horse has a clean pasture.
Every two to three days, you should check your horse’s body carefully for ticks, insect bites, or sores. Pull off ticks. These little “monsters” feed off your horse’s blood and cause sores and infections. Besides, a horse can’t speak to you in words and tell you what “bugs” them. The extra work you put in to keep your horse insect free is one of the best ways to show your horse love. Taking care of your horse’s surroundings allows you to enjoy a long, healthy relationship with him and lets him know you care about his well-being.